# Outliers¶

Outlier detection widget.

**Inputs**

- Data: input dataset

**Outputs**

- Outliers: instances scored as outliers
- Inliers: instances not scored as outliers
- Data: input dataset appended
*Outlier*variable

The **Outliers** widget applies one of the four methods for outlier detection. All methods apply classification to the dataset. *One-class SVM with non-linear kernels (RBF)* performs well with non-Gaussian distributions, while *Covariance estimator* works only for data with Gaussian distribution. One efficient way to perform outlier detection on moderately high dimensional datasets is to use the *Local Outlier Factor* algorithm. The algorithm computes a score reflecting the degree of abnormality of the observations. It measures the local density deviation of a given data point with respect to its neighbors. Another efficient way of performing outlier detection in high-dimensional datasets is to use random forests (*Isolation Forest*).

- Method for outlier detection:
- Set parameters for the method:
**One class SVM with non-linear kernel (RBF)**: classifies data as similar or different from the core class:*Nu*is a parameter for the upper bound on the fraction of training errors and a lower bound of the fraction of support vectors*Kernel coefficient*is a gamma parameter, which specifies how much influence a single data instance has

**Covariance estimator**: fits ellipsis to central points with Mahalanobis distance metric:*Contamination*is the proportion of outliers in the dataset*Support fraction*specifies the proportion of points included in the estimate

**Local Outlier Factor**: obtains local density from the k-nearest neighbors:*Contamination*is the proportion of outliers in the dataset*Neighbors*represents number of neighbors*Metric*is the distance measure

**Isolation Forest**: isolates observations by randomly selecting a feature and then randomly selecting a split value between the maximum and minimum values of the selected feature:*Contamination*is the proportion of outliers in the dataset*Replicabe training*fixes random seed

- If
*Apply automatically*is ticked, changes will be propagated automatically. Alternatively, click*Apply*. - Produce a report.
- Number of instances on the input, followed by number of instances scored as inliers.

## Example¶

Below is an example of how to use this widget. We used subset (*versicolor* and *virginica* instances) of the *Iris* dataset to detect the outliers. We chose the *Local Outlier Factor* method, with *Euclidean* distance. Then we observed the annotated instances in the Scatter Plot widget. In the next step we used the *setosa* instances to demonstrate novelty detection using Apply Domain widget. After concatenating both outputs we examined the outliers in the *Scatter Plot (1)*.